Useful One Liner's

sda 8:0 0 1.4T 0 disk
└─sda1 8:1 0 1.4T 0 part /1500GB
sdb 8:16 0 931.5G 0 disk
└─sdb1 8:17 0 931.5G 0 part /Quadra
sdc 8:32 0 149.1G 0 disk
├─sdc1 8:33 0 142.6G 0 part /
├─sdc2 8:34 0 1K 0 part
└─sdc5 8:37 0 6.5G 0 part [SWAP]
sdd 8:48 0 931.5G 0 disk
└─sdd1 8:49 0 931.5G 0 part /Storebird

Always forget how to spell certain words? Look uses the dictionary unless other arg given:

look nece

I don't know if "find" can find file types; So I just created a handy line for removing various text files so you can be selective – or any type that the file command recognises – probably better ways to do it, but the fun of linux tools is creating your own step by step that work for you! Rewarding! I needed to remove lots of *txt files, some of which are empty. It lists the file types; greps key word; prints only column 1 with colon; removes the colon; runs rm for that filename. 

file *txt
bobtest.txt: empty
fileA.txt: empty
fileB.txt: empty
fileC.txt: empty
gaussian.txt: ASCII text
histlist.txt: UTF-8 Unicode text
perflist.txt: ASCII text
random.txt: ASCII text
wlan.txt: ASCII text

file * | grep empty | awk '{print $1}' | sed s/://g | xargs rm -v

To remove the others, replace type (empty, ASCII, UTF, or just "text" will cover them etc), after grep.

You can remove all in first go, grep txt. obviously, or just :

rm -v *txt

but that doesn't give a chance to check them as a wrongly named file/other of other type, so could be a big mistake.

Delete all local mail:

Held 7 messages in /var/mail/stevee
stevee@AMD ~ $ mail

U 7 Cron Daemon Sat Aug 13 00:30 23/1034 Cron <stevee@AMD> rsync –
? d*
? q

From Linux Server Hacks, if you have created /home/user/bin, then it should be added to your $PATH for your own scripts due to .profile :

# set PATH so it includes user's private bin if it exists
if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then

create this disk usage alias by adding it to your .bash_aliases so retained on reboot:
alias ducks='du -cks * | sort -rn | head -11'

now cd to any dir, and run it – if you want -h, it wont show largest files in hi-low order as M is above G:

54191636 total
43135152 Videos
107972 Documents
45568 Desktop
6396 Pictures
1644 Cprogs
20 Music
12 bin
4 setuid.txt

only way round G/M size for du is set the blocksize to your biggest file size units, e.g. -BG for Gig size files e.g.:

du -BG /Storebird/Vids/ | sort -nr | head -5
135G /Storebird/Vids/
29G /Storebird/Vids/Cosmos
17G /Storebird/Vids/DavidIcke
10G /Storebird/Vids/MadMcann
9G /Storebird/Vids/DavidIcke/Icke-FeedomRd

so, alias BIGducks!

vi .bash_aliases
stevee@AMD ~ $ alias BIGducks='du -cBG * | sort -nr | head -11'
stevee@AMD ~ $ BIGducks
52G total
42G Videos
11G Downloads
1G Videos/screencasts
1G setuid.txt
1G Pictures/screenshots
1G Pictures
1G Music
1G Downloads/VirtualRadar/zh-CN
1G Downloads/VirtualRadar/Web/script/vrs
1G Downloads/VirtualRadar/Web/script/jquiplugin

Find setuid a=s files with:

sudo find /usr/bin/ -perm +6000 -type f -exec ls -ld {} \; > setuid.txt

sudo find /usr/bin/ -perm +a=s -type f

change file's mod time:

touch -d "Jun 22 18:03" file.txt

This did a good job of recovering lost files to /tmp/recover from a Sportcam SDcard that was DD'd to lizard.img:

photorec /d /tmp/recover /cmd lizard.img partition_none,options,fileopt,everything,enable,search

History Expansion

The shell offers a specialized type of expansion for items in the history list by using the
"!" character. We have already seen how the exclamation point can be followed by a
number to insert an entry from the history list. There are a number of other expansion fea-
Table 8-6: History Expansion Commands
Sequence Action
!! Repeat the last command. It is probably easier to press up arrow and
!number Repeat history list item number.
!string Repeat last history list item starting with string.
!?string Repeat last history list item containing string. Fab!!
I would caution against using the "!string" and "!?string" forms unless you are absolutely
sure of the contents of the history list items.

Doing NBT name scan for addresses from

IP address NetBIOS Name Server User MAC address
—————————————————————————— AMD <server> AMD 00:00:00:00:00:00 DELLMINT <server> DELLMINT 00:00:00:00:00:00 HPMINT <server> HPMINT 00:00:00:00:00:00 PIBLANC <server> PIBLANC 00:00:00:00:00:00 SOUTH <server> SOUTH 00:00:00:00:00:00 PINOIR <server> PINOIR 00:00:00:00:00:00 PIFRONT <server> PIFRONT 00:00:00:00:00:00


user can change own pword as setuid bit is set to root for this command, so user becomes root while it runs:

ls -al /usr/bin/passwd
-rwsr-xr-x 1 root root 47032 Jul 15 20:29 /usr/bin/passwd

passwd -h

-a, –all report password status on all accounts (not in Mint!)
-d, –delete delete the password for the named account
-e, –expire force expire the password for the named account
-h, –help display this help message and exit
-k, –keep-tokens change password only if expired
-i, –inactive INACTIVE set password inactive after expiration
-l, –lock lock the password of the named account
-n, –mindays MIN_DAYS set minimum number of days before password
change to MIN_DAYS
-q, –quiet quiet mode
-r, –repository REPOSITORY change password in REPOSITORY repository
-R, –root CHROOT_DIR directory to chroot into
-S, –status report password status on the named account
-u, –unlock unlock the password of the named account
-w, –warndays WARN_DAYS set expiration warning days to WARN_DAYS
-x, –maxdays MAX_DAYS set maximum number of days before password
change to MAX_DAYS

Find only first 10 real users unames in /etc/passwd (Mint)

Real (non system) users start at grp no. 1000, so sorting unames in /etc/passwd by group number 1000-1009 using grep, with 4th char, NOT ":" to remove group 100: = user libuuid

Just "100." gives groups containing 100. so no good

DELLMINT stevee # cat /etc/passwd | sort | grep 100.

so add 100.[:]

cat /etc/passwd | grep 100.[:]

or of course:

cat /etc/passwd | sort | grep 100[0-9]

(find blank lines and/or how many in a file, using the "anchors" – the start and end of line chars – which every line MUST have!

grep '^$' file.txt | wc -l

Blank Line Stripper

Use that with sed to delete (d) the blank lines from a file:

stevee@Mint5630 ~/Documents/SEDAWK $ grep '^.*$' books
Here are the books that you requested

Yes, it is a good book for children

It is amazing to think that it was called a "harmful book"

once you get to the end of the book, you can't believe
stevee@Mint5630 ~/Documents/SEDAWK $ grep '^.*$' books | sed '/^$/d'
Here are the books that you requested
Yes, it is a good book for children
It is amazing to think that it was called a "harmful book"
once you get to the end of the book, you can't believe

Or awk using a sed type search method:

awk '/100.[:]/' /etc/passwd

All users starting with a"b"

 awk '/^b/' /etc/passwd


3Copy an MBR

Use: # dd if=/dev/sda of=/mbr bs=512 count=1

to copy and…

Use: # dd if=/mbr of=/dev/hda bs=1 count=64 skip=446 seek=446

to write it back

This is the WinNT cmd line for dd-0.5 that copies from the unmounted hidden partition0 on a Vista pc:

dd.exe if=\\?\Device\Harddisk0\Partition0 of=\\.\d:/mbr bs=512 count=1


ddclient -query

Learn VIM!!! Or another non-X windows text editor like Nano etc.

apt-get install vim


You can open a file at specific word using # vi +/"word" /file.txt or at a line number

vi +30 /webmin-setup.out

cat -n /xpkgs.txt (adds line numbers to file contents)

arp -a

hdparm -i /dev/hda – gives all info on device:

finger username

apt-get install bwm-ng (bandwidth monitor)

grpck – checks group files integrity:

blkid /dev/sda1 – find what filesystem is on a partition

less /proc/net/bonding/bond0 – info on bonded ethernet cards

rsync –dry-run -e ssh –verbose –progress –stats –compress –recursive –times –perms –links –delete –exclude "/sys" –exclude "/dev" –exclude "/proc" –exclude "*bak" /*

(..Notice the –dry-run [-n] option to just test the transfer without actually sending files. It's a good idea to put this -n at the end of the line so you can delete it once you have dry-run and happy with what occurs!

Note also the –delete option READ THE MAN PAGE FOR THESE OPTIONS – they may not do as you think. Finally note the -e ssh to ensure the transfer is actually secure. Once you are happy the process is working simple remove the –dry-run). So, a real practical net transfer command may be:

rsync -e ssh –verbose –progress –compress –recursive  /home/stevee/Cprogs/* stevee@dellmint:/home/stevee/Cprogs/

which with recursive, archive mode, compression, human readable and visible progress reduces to:

rsync -e ssh -vrazh –progress /home/stevee/Cprogs/* stevee@dellmint:/home/stevee/Cprogs/

Warning: the ECDSA host key for 'dellmint' differs from the key for the IP address ''
Offending key for IP in /home/stevee/.ssh/known_hosts:1
Matching host key in /home/stevee/.ssh/known_hosts:12
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
stevee@dellmint's password:
sending incremental file list
0 100% 0.00kB/s 0:00:00 (xfr#1, to-chk=138/145)

sent 3.38K bytes received 37 bytes 402.47 bytes/sec
total size is 627.17K speedup is 183.33

If you wanted to delete the files at the other end that DON'T exist at the sending side to keep the send and receive sides identical say, use the –delete-excluded option. BE SURE this is what you want! Files at the other end will be deleted – be sure you don't need them first if they don't exist on the sending side!!

du -ah /LVM80G/

df -h /dev/sda1

route add -net default gw x.x.x.x (sets the default gateway for pc with static IP set via


can be automated at boot by adding gateway=x.x.x.x to /etc/network/interfaces file

grep $stg /filename

ls -a /Share/ | grep "^v" (find a file in /share beginning with small "v")

ls -a /Share/ | grep "^[^v]" (find a file in /Share NOT beginning with small "v" – NOTE diff meanings of ^ inside [ie NOT = ] or outside the []), ie ^=start of line.

Like solving crosswords..? Use the "." for a single character match of 5 letter words starting with c and ending with h:

grep "\<c…h\>" /usr/share/dict/words

You can also OP the contents of a whole file like using cat by finding ALL the chars in a file eg:

grep '.*' /etc/passwd


awk '{print $0}' /etc/passwd








…trunc…Also, my grep OP is colorised green for easy result view from editing the .bashrc file in home dir, and adding grep = grep -r as an alias, as other examples given

DMESG (gives debug info of current startup events) and Notices


or can be read/searched directly from file:

vi /var/log/dmesg

Edit /etc/syslog.conf removing the # on the news, debug and notice /dev/tty8 lines as below to show system notices, like info on a newly plugged USB stick etc. Press Ctrl-Alt-F8 to see tty8.

# I like to have messages displayed on the console, but only on a virtual

# console I usually leave idle.




*.=notice;*.=warn /dev/tty8

find . -type f -not -empty | wc -l

apropos find

chkdupexe (1) – find duplicate executables

dcopfind (1) – Find the DCOP reference of a KDE service

exinext (8) – Finding individual retry times

exiwhat (8) – Finding out what Exim processes are doing

find (1) – search for files in a directory hierarchy

find2perl (1) – translate find command lines to Perl code

findaffix (1) – Interactive spelling checking

findfs (8) – Find a filesystem by label or UUID

findsmb (1) – list info about machines that respond to SMB name queries on a subnet

gift (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-endianize (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-extract-features (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-generate-inverted-file (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-modify-distance-matrix (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-one-minus (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gift-write-feature-descs (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

gnuift (1) – GNU Image Finding Tool – index and search images by content

hal-find-by-capability (1) – find device objects by capability matching

hal-find-by-property (1) – find device objects by property matching

kappfinder (1) – searches for program to add to the Kde menu

kfind (1) – KDE find tool

locate (1) – find files by name

mlocate (1) – find files by name

oldfind (1) – search for files in a directory hierarchy

pidof (8) – find the process ID of a running program.

recursdir (1) – recurse through local or remote directories to command/find files or create tar files.

runlevel (8) – find the previous and current system runlevel.

sane-find-scanner (1) – find SCSI and USB scanners and their device files

mount -t cifs //server/share /dir -o username=user (Note: this CIFS [Common Inet File Sys] format now supercedes SMBFS to mount a XP/Vista share on Linbox via Samba. Note, Vista security requires Netcard having Netbios, port 139 enabled in Properties/Advanced/WINS tab)

netstat -an | grep ssh (searches for string with particular number associated eg for seeing connection state info on a network service eg ssh/apache2 service connected or listening, [also use # nmap] )

nmap -PO x.x.x.x (uses varied pings to try penetrate a stealthed IP)

tcpdump -vv eth0 ( 2 Vs – puts netcard into promiscuous listening mode to view, Very Verbosely, bcast address info, e.g. to find a lost subnet addr on a preconfigured net device with no reset to default button)

socat (netcat on steroids supposedly – look into this…)

socat – TCP:localhost:www,crnl (fetches whole webpage.html after 2 way pipe is open and GET / typed)


vim .bashrc (edits user .bashrc file using vim editor to get colourisation for ls -al and grep listings etc.)

pwgen (generates 8 digit passwords of varying complexity)

man pwgen (manual page for program… if it exists..or try "info")

apt-get install linux-image* (lists all available image names for current architecture, i386, or AMD64 etc. can search any packages using wildcard * like this also)

apt-get install knemo (config via Control Panel for taskbar network icons and info)

apt-cache pkgnames | sort > pkgs.txt (outputs all the 30000 odd package names available for install on Debian, pipes output via sort to list them alphabetically, and saves list as a textfile)

apt-cache pkgnames | wc -l (pipes packagenames via word count with a -l line switch to give a total count of all packages, = 30107 for this kernel version)

uname -a (gives full kernel version info = Linux t5500 2.6.26-1-686 #1 SMP Thu Oct 9 15:18:09 UTC 2008 i686 GNU/Linux)

scp ~/.ssh/ (secure copy of public keys to remote server .ssh/auth_keys file to enable passwordless logins/transfers via rsync. ssh-keygen had to been run on remote and local fir dirs to exist to copy from/to!) Mint does not allow ssh root logins, Raspbian still does 09/2015

ssh-keygen (default prompts)

ssh-keygen -t rsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key

ssh-keygen -t dsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key

This below allows logging info from a Cisco/WinServer to be logged by Debian in the enterprise.log. The Cisco IOS device has to be configd with:

config term


logging trap (3,4,7 level etc.)

service timestamps log datetime

logging on

When done, stop the syslogd server with #/etc/init.d/rsyslogd stop

Restart with #/etc/ini.d/rsyslogd restart (listens for remote log info.)

file /pkgs.txt /bin/vdir (tells file types of each file)

comm /f1 /f2 (compare two sorted files line by line)

cmp – compare two files byte by byte

diff (compare two files line by line)

uniq (remove duplicate lines without changing original file)

ls -al /bin/ | wc -l (the -l switch for wc is for "lines")

ls -alsh /mnt/

invoke (alternative to /etc/init.d/service start|stop|restart)

tar -xvf filename.tar (recursively unpacks a tarball file)

wpa_passphrase essid-name wpa-password > /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf (creates a basic wpa conf file), then run:

#wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

(where -D is the standard linux wireless extensions driver, wext; -i is the name of wifi card (wlan0, ath0 etc.); and -c is the conf file.)

NOTE: a 10 digit hex password is a 40 bit secure psk; a 26 digit hex password eg "abcdef1234abcdef1234abcdef" is a 120 bit secure psk, and what can be input depends on the security capabilities of the ADSL wifi router/modem

Check yourself – run # wpa_passphrase linksys abcdef1234

and you should get 007aca04beffb195c12dee8a15682053f77f1342713af0d0e87db8141f4cbe86 as part of the output.

kill -9 pid (pid = process ID, will terminate a locked running process, find (with grep) via

ps aux

Image Mounting

mount -o loop /share/cruzer.img /mnt/ (mount an image file at /mnt of a pendrive in the same way as an .iso file using the loop function – create initial .img file with

dd if=/dev/sdc1 of=/share/cruzer.img – note that dd requires the device name not the mounted device folder name same as of=/dev/cdrom above)


netcat -v -w 1 localhost -z 1-3000 (netcat as port scanner – initially found in /etc/alternatives/netcat in Lenny, copy it to /usr/sbin)

On Windows:

g:/nc.exe -lp 1337 > (nc as ftp receiver on port 1377, pc B, listening)

g:/nc.exe -w 1 x.x.x.x_pc_A 1337 < (netcat as ftp server now sending on port 1337, pcA to pcB / dir – COOL!!!. Ports close on end file transfer.)

Using pv to give visual progress sending a file, first set listening/receiving pc,

netcat -lp 4444 | pv | > /Efat32/Vids/Ivette.iso

cat /iod/Ivette/Ivette.iso | pv | netcat 4444

3.06GB 0:05:49 [9.63MB/s] [ <=> ]

No auto EOF termination using cat (process not closing automatically) for file transfers that are ok up to 7.8GB

Netcat Chat Server

Have you ever needed an improvised one-on-one chat? Netcat can do that too. You simply start listening to connections on some port like this:

nc.exe -lp 1337 (Then on another machine simply connect to that port:)

nc.exe x.x.x.x_pcA 1337 (Now start typing on either machine. When you press enter, the line will immediately show up on the other machine)

Netcat Telnet Server

Netcat can also be used to set up a telnet server in a matter of seconds. You can specify the shell (or for that matter any executable) you want netcat to run at a successful connection with the -e parameter:

nc.exe -lp 1337 -e /bin/bash

On windows you can use:

nc.exe -lp 1337 -e cmd.exe (to run netcat on Vista, run cmd as Admin, cd to netcat dir, and add to anti-virus exceptions at pop up box. Run >nc.exe -lp 1337 etc )

Then on a client machine simply connect to port 1337 and you will get full access to the shell, with the permissions of the user who ran nc.exe on the Win server.

Cloning Hard Drive Partitions Over the Network (umounted partition required to write to remember, as dd writes to devices ONLY

dd if=/dev/sda | netcat 9000

netcat -l -p 9000 | dd of=/dev/sda

Of course you need to have the cloned partitions unmounted on both systems. So if you are cloning / you will have to boot from a live distro like Knoppix. Note that you can use this technique to clone NTFS partitions as well – just need to use a live Linux distro on both sides.

NTP port 123, SNTP port 583

apt-get install ntp ntpdate (this will enable Net Time Prot sync for pc and will also server other pcs/Cisco. When installed run

# ntpdate-debian to auto setup the local timeservers – EASY! Note the low end Cisco units only run SNTP but will still get time/date from an NTP server: ntp server

Partition Expansion

Use gparted from bootable Rescue CD in a GUI

Burn CD/DVD with no GUI software

dd if=/name.iso of=/dev/cdrom bs=1M

or with wodim

wodim /file.iso (this is suficient to burn an iso to default cdrw device, auto found by wodim.

Sparse files are files whose real allocation needs are fulfilled only when data are written inside them. If you try to read from places you haven't written before, you get zeroes – and these zeroes don't really occupy any space in your hard drive. If only one sector of data (512 bytes) gets written at some offset inside a sparse file, then a sector is all the sparse file will reserve from the file system – not the size reported by the file system!

All that is required to create a 150GB sparse file under Windows is this: (From within a Cygwin command prompt) dd if=/dev/zero of=BigFile bs=1M count=1 seek=150000 This command will execute in 1 second, and it will only reserve 1MB of real hard drive space. Real storage will grow as needed, when data are written inside BigFile.

Great trick to zero a hard drives emty space before zipping its contents as a backup file:

cat /dev/zero > /zero.fill

This creates an emty file using all the drives remaining space, then delete it.

rm -v /zero.fill

gzip / > /other_drive/backup.gzip (or bzip2 etc.)

Compare before and after size with

du -h /other_drive/backup.gzip

gpart -W /dev/sdx /dev/sdx (guess partitions and/or backup/re-write lost MBR [the -W switch] back to /dev/sdx after partitions have been guessed correctly – HOPEFULLY!)

host is a simple utility for performing DNS lookups. It is normally

used to convert names to IP addresses and vice versa. When no

arguments or options are given, host prints a short summary of its

command line arguments and options.

host domain name pointer Bthomehub.home.

host has address mail is handled by 10 mail is handled by 20

host quad

quad has address

quad mail is handled by 0 quad.

Get user membership info:

id stevee

uid=1000(stevee) gid=1000(stevee) groups=1000(stevee),4(adm),24(cdrom),27(sudo),30(dip),46(plugdev),108(lpadmin),110(sambashare)

AMDA8 stevee # id stevee -G
1000 4 24 27 30 46 108 110
AMDA8 stevee # cat /etc/group | grep stevee

nl /etc/samba/smb.conf

numbers lines in a file and shows contents

reset (resets terminal init to clear screen, same as

setterm -reset

cat > /test.txt

text to go in this file (followed by Ctrl-D to close)

cat /test.txt

text to go in this file

rev /test.txt

tset rof txet

top (shows running processes) q to quit

wall (writes a msg to all users term windows [but not an Xwindow], end with Ctrl-D, or send file content: # wall < /file.txt)


users (shows all currently logged on users, except root session when root is logged in to SuperUserMode Terminal in X, only when in tty1-6 non X)

root stevee

w (list all logged on users and their processes)

whereis java (locates the binary, source, and manual page files for a command)

java: /usr/share/java

0 (bandwidth measuring app between 2 hosts- note is the DNS of Orange uk and handy to remember for an alternate, and a web access/ping test)

Remove unused services at startup – eg Exim

Services booting are found in /etc/rc*.d and can be prevented from starting by changing their name, and so the link to the binary eg:

OLD! use: update-rc.d

# mv -v /etc/rc2.d/S20exim /etc/rc2.d/S_20exim

#last stevee (this filters the contents of /var/log/wtmp since the file was created, eg here filters info on user stevee

# lastlog


Cmd line mail using SendEmail

apt-get install sendemail

sendEmail -t -f -cc -xu stevepedwards -xp password -s

No -m option takes text body from STDIN: firewall:~# sendEmail -f -t -u test -s -xu stevepedwards -xp password -m helo me

Jun 28 23:15:49 firewall sendEmail[1575]: Email was sent successfully!

Or pipe a file into the above eg:

cat /textfile.txt | sendEmail -t -f -cc -xu stevepedwards -xp password -s

apt-get install chkconfig

chkconfig –list | grep '3:on'

#service apache2

Delete All Mail Messages:

#echo 'd *' | mail -N

Delete All Mail Messages: For Any User

#echo 'd *' | mail -N -u username

Another way to use the mail command from the Linux CLI is to get information from a server and email it to yourself or someone else. For instance I may want to review a log file on another computer or have another systems administrator who may or may not have access to the server to view a log file. In the below example we will use the access.log file as an example Apache log that we want to email to ourselves so use the below command to do so.

# more /file.txt | mail

#socat SYSTEM:date –


To change the system date use:

# date {}

o mm Month

o dd Date

o hh 24 hour format

o mi Minutes

o yyyy Year

o ss seconds

eg: to set system date to Jan 31st 2009, 10:19 p.m, 53 seconds

date 013122192009.53

To set the time only:

date +%T -s "22:19:53"

Use hwclock without any parameter, to view the current hardware date and time:


set the hardware date and time based on the system date as shown below:

hwclock –systohc

hwclock –systohc –utc

date –date='360 days ago' (can be seconds, minutes, months etc. ago)

Sat Aug 16 20:24:18 CEST 2008

Show Future dates and Times 

date –date="1 week" (can be sec, min, hour, day etc.)

Tue Aug 18 20:28:24 CEST 2009

Login to Remote Host using SSH

ssh -v (shows debug info)

To come back to the localhost temporarily, without logging out of remote ssh session, type the escape character (after editing /etc/ssh/ssh_config and removing # from EscapeChar = ~): ~ and ^Z. When back to own console you can see the stopped session by running #


mount -o loop /share/iomegadeb.img /mnt

I fixed my "too small", application X font mismatch with HDMI TV resolution by adding this to xorg.conf:

Option "NoDDC"

to Section "Device"

If the above change improves your system, but the result is less than 100% to your satisfaction, you can tweak sizes up or down by making the DisplaySize dimensions slightly larger or smaller than actual.